What Is Arthritis?
Arthritis Pain: Arthritis is a painful and degenerative condition marked by inflammation in the joints that causes stiffness and pain. Osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis, gets worse with age and is caused by wear and tear over the years.
Arthritis is very common but is not well understood. Actually, “arthritis” is not a single disease; it is an informal way of referring to joint pain or joint disease. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and related conditions. People of all ages, sexes and races can and do have arthritis. More than 50 million adults and 300,000 children have some type of arthritis. It is most common among women and occurs more frequently as people get older.

Types of Arthritis
There are more than 100 different forms of arthritis and related diseases. The most common types include osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), fibromyalgia and gout. All of them can cause pain in different ways. By:
The most common types Arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA):
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis.  The cartilage and bones within a joint begin to break down in people with OA.  These changes cause pain, stiffness, and even disability.  OA usually develops slowly and gets worse over time. That inflammation causes redness, warmth, swelling, and pain within the joint.
It is the "wear and tear" that happens when your joints are overused. It usually happens with age, but it can also come from joint injuries or obesity, which puts extra stress on your joints.
Causes of Osteoarthritis
Symptoms of Osteoarthritis include:

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints. Autoimmune diseases are illnesses that occur when the body's tissues are mistakenly attacked by their own immune system. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints. Autoimmune diseases are illnesses that occur when the body's tissues are mistakenly attacked by their own immune system. It affects joints on both sides of the body, such as both hands, both wrists, and both knees. This symmetry helps to set it apart from other types of arthritis. It affects joints on both sides of the body, such as both hands, both wrists, and both knees. This symmetry helps to set it apart from other types of arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis affects everyone differently. For some, joint symptoms develop gradually over several years. In others, it may come on quickly. Some people may have rheumatoid arthritis for a short time and then go into remission, which means they do not have symptoms.
Causes of rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition, which means it is caused by the body's immune system attacking itself. However, it is not yet known what triggers this. Normally, your immune system makes antibodies that attack bacteria and viruses, helping fight infection.
Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:
Early rheumatoid arthritis tends to affect your smaller joints first — particularly the joints that attach your fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet.                                                              
Rheumatoid arthritis can affect many nonjoint structures, including:
 Psoriatic Arthritis 
Psoriatic arthritis occurs when your body's immune system begins to attack healthy cells and tissue. The abnormal immune response causes inflammation in your joints as well as overproduction of skin cells.
Physical trauma or something in the environment — such as a viral or bacterial infection — may trigger psoriatic arthritis in people with an inherited tendency.
Causes of Psoriatic Arthritis
Psoriasis is a disease in which scaly red and white patches develop on the skin. Psoriasis is caused by the body's immune system going into overdrive to attack the skin. Some people with psoriasis can also develop psoriatic arthritis, when the immune system attacks the joints as well, causing inflammation.
Symptoms of Psoriatic Arthritis
How to diagnose Arthritis
Depending on the findings so far, your doctor may order lab and/or imaging tests.
A diagnosis of arthritis is the first step toward successful treatment. To diagnose arthritis, your doctor will consider your symptoms, and then he will recommends these:
    Lab Tests:  Blood may be drawn to check for levels of inflammation, presence of antibodies, and status of general systems (complete blood count, liver and kidney function, etc.). The doctor may use a needle to draw fluid from the joint for analysis. In some cases, a genetic test may be ordered.
X-rays and blood tests also help distinguish the type of arthritis you have. For example, most people with rheumatoid arthritis have antibodies called rheumatoid factors (RF) in their blood, although RF may also be present in other disorders.
X-rays: Using low levels of radiation to visualize bone, X-rays can show cartilage loss, bone damage and bone spurs. X-rays may not reveal early arthritic damage, but they are often used to track progression of the disease.
Computerized tomography (CT): CT scanners take X-rays from many different angles and combine the information to create cross-sectional views of internal structures. CTs can visualize both bone and the surrounding soft tissues.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Combining radio waves with a strong magnetic field, MRI can produce more-detailed cross-sectional images of soft tissues such as cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
Ultrasound: This technology uses high-frequency sound waves to image soft tissues, cartilage and fluid-containing structures such as bursae. Ultrasound also is used to guide needle placement for joint aspirations and injections.
How to Prevent Arthritis

Treatment for Arthritis
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce stiffness and swelling, as well as relieving pain.
Painkillers (analgesics) such as paracetamol reduce pain.
Steroids are powerful, natural anti-inflammatory agents.
Over-the-counter pain-relievers: These include Tylenol (acetaminophen), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Aspirin, Aleve (naproxen), and Advil or Motrin (ibuprofen). Acetaminophen may be best used in conjunction with some prescription medications and is generally safe for long-term use, according to 2012 research in The Open Rheumatology Journal. But the researchers also noted that, while NSAIDs can ease an arthritis flare-up, high doses and long-term use may also be harmful; the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cautions that NSAIDs can cause stomach bleeding and kidney damage in some people.
Arthritis Home Remedies/Home Cure
Complications of Arthritis
As rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition,
It can cause inflammation to develop in other parts of your body, such as the:
Lungs: Inflammation of the lungs or lung lining can lead to pleurisy or pulmonary fibrosis,
which can cause chest pain, a persistent cough and shortness of breath.
Cardiovascular disease: If you have rheumatoid arthritis, you are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than the population at large. Cardiovascular disease is a general term that describes conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels, and it includes life-threatening problems such as heart attacks and strokes.
It is not clear exactly why people with rheumatoid arthritis are at an increased risk of these problems, but you can reduce your risk by ensuring your arthritis is well controlled and by reducing the impact of other factors that contribute to CVD, such as by stopping smoking, eating healthily and exercising regularly.
Joint damage
If rheumatoid arthritis is not treated early or is not well controlled, the inflammation in your joints could lead to significant and permanent damage.
Problems that can affect the joints include:
Damage to nearby bone and cartilage (a tough, flexible tissue that covers the surface of joints)
Damage to nearby tendons (flexible tissue that attach muscle to bone), which could cause them to break (rupture)
Whole-Body Illness       

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