Diabetes



Diabetes

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes
What Is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high. Persons with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. There is no cure for diabetes. People with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy.
It is a metabolic disease in which the body’s inability to produce any or enough insulin causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood.
Persons with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. This problem can start when a person is young (Type 1 diabetes) or older (Type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes is usually more serious, this can only be control by insulin (drug/Injection).
Diabetes is a serious complex condition which can affect the entire body. Diabetes requires daily self care and if complications develop, diabetes can have a significant impact on quality of life and can reduce life expectancy. While there is currently no cure for diabetes, you can live an enjoyable life by learning about the condition and effectively managing it. It often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus
There are three major types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes
The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is usually more serious and young people need a medicine called insulin to control it. This problem can start when a person is young or older
Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. We do not know what causes this auto-immune reaction. Type 1 diabetes is not linked to modifiable lifestyle factors. There is no cure and it cannot be prevented.

Type 2 diabetes
The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). Most people with diabetes have Type 2, starting after age 40.
The most common form of diabetes is called type 2, or non-insulin dependent diabetes.
This is also called “adult onset” diabetes, since it typically develops after age 35. However, a growing number of younger people are now developing type 2 diabetes. 
People with type 2 are able to produce some of their own insulin. Often, it’s not enough. And sometimes, the insulin will try to serve as the “key” to open the body’s cells, to allow the glucose to enter. But the key won’t work. The cells won’t open. This is called insulin resistance. 
Often, type 2 is tied to people who are overweight, with a sedentary lifestyle. 
Treatment focuses on diet and exercise. If blood sugar levels are still high, oral medications are used to help the body use its own insulin more efficiently. In some cases, insulin injections are necessary.

Gestational diabetes/Pregnant Diabetes
This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.
High blood glucose is caused because the mother can’t produce enough insulin (a pregnant woman’s insulin needs are two to three times that of normal).
There are two reasons why the mother needs more insulin:
Because pregnancy causes certain types of hormones (that are made by the placenta) to be released., These hormones make it harder for insulin to do its job because the growth demands of the foetus (developing baby) increases the mother's need for insulin

Unlike type 1 and type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes is only temporary and usually disappears after pregnancy. However, a woman who has had gestational diabetes has an increased risk (50-60%) of developing type 2 diabetes in the future; therefore they should be tested for type 2 diabetes each year.
What you need to know about diabetes



Diabetes
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
Causes of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what many of those factors are is still unclear.

Causes of type 2 diabetes
In pre-diabetes — which can lead to type 2 diabetes  and in type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving into your cells where it's needed for energy, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.
Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it's believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.
Causes of gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin.
Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can't keep up. When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells and too much stays in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes.
 Symptoms/Signs of Diabetes Mellitus
Early signs of diabetes: Later, more serious signs:



Diabetes

How to diagnose Diabetes Mellitus
In order to find out whether a person has diabetes, test her urine to see if there is sugar in it. Diabetes and pre-diabetes are diagnosed with a fasting plasma glucose test, oral glucose tolerance test, or random plasma glucose test. One way to test the urine is to taste it. If it tastes sweet to you, have 2 other persons taste it. Have them also taste the urine of 3 other people. If everyone agrees that the same person’s urine is sweeter, she is probably diabetic.
Another way of testing urine is to use special paper strips (for example, Uristix). If these change color when dipped in the urine, it has sugar in it.
If the person is a child or young adult, he should be seen by an experienced health worker or doctor.
To diagnose GDM
Get tested. During your doctor’s visit, you will likely be tested for GDM through an “initial glucose challenge test” and/or a follow-up “glucose tolerance testing.”
In the “initial glucose challenge test,” you’ll be asked to drink a syrupy, sugar solution and then, after an hour has passed, your blood will be tested to measure your sugar levels.
How to Prevent Diabetes
Tips to help you reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes

Tips to help you reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes

Tips to help you reduce your risk of GDM

It is recommended that those at average risk for GDM have a screening performed during their second trimester -- between 24 and 28 weeks.



Diabetes

Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus
All types of diabetes are treatable. Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime; however, some people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication, through a combination of exercise, diet and body weight control.
When a person gets diabetes after he is 40 years old, it can often be best controlled without medicines, by eating correctly and getting plenty of exercise. The diabetic person’s diet is very important and must be followed carefully for life.
The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is treated with:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is treated:
First with weight reduction, a type 2 diabetes diet, and exercise
Oral medications are prescribed when these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars of type 2 diabetes.
If oral medications become ineffective treatment with insulin is initiated.
The diabetic diet: Fat people with diabetes should lose weight until their weight is normal. Diabetics must not eat any sugar or sweets, or foods that taste sweet.
It is important for them to eat lots of fresh vegetables and high fiber foods, such as whole grain breads. But diabetics should also eat some other starchy foods, like beans, rice, and potatoes, and also foods high in protein.
Diabetes in adults can sometimes be helped by drinking the sap of the prickly pear cactus (nopal, Opuntia). To prepare, cut the cactus into small pieces and crush them to squeeze out the liquid. Drink 1 ½ cups of the liquid 3 times each day before meals.
To prevent infection and injury to the skin, clean the teeth after eating, keep the skin clean, and always wear shoes to prevent foot injuries. For poor circulation in the feet (dark color, numbness), rest often with the feet up. Follow the same recommendations as for varicose veins

Diabetes Home Remedies/Home Cure

Also, you can include one dish made of bitter gourd daily in your diet.

Tip: Take a few drumstick leaves, wash and crush them to extract their juice. Now take about 1/4th cup of this juice and drink it on an empty stomach, every morning to keep your sugar levels under control.

Tip: Steep a bag of green tea in hot water for 2-3 minutes. Remove the bag and drink a cup of this tea in the morning or before your meals.

Tip: Eat around 5 – 6 jamuns in the morning to control your blood sugar levels. Alternatively, you can also add a spoonful of jamun seeds powder to a glass of warm water or milk and drink this daily for better control of diabetes.

You can also dry the leaves in the shade and grind them. Eat one-half teaspoon of powdered mango leaves two times daily.

Tip: Drink the juice of the tender shoot of neem leaves on an empty stomach for best results



Diabetes

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Complications

Type 2 Complications
By keeping your blood glucose level in a healthy range through meal planning, physical activity, and medications, you can avoid long-term complications of diabetes.
These complications develop over many years and they all relate to how blood glucose levels can affect blood vessels. Over time, high blood glucose can damage the body’s blood vessels, both tiny and large.
Damage to your tiny blood vessels causes microvascular complications; damage to your large vessels causes macrovascular complications.
Microvascular Complications: Eye, Kidney, and Nerve Disease
You have small blood vessels that can be damaged by consistently high blood glucose over time. Damaged blood vessels don’t deliver blood as well as they should, so that leads to other problems, specifically with the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
Eyes: Blood glucose levels out of range for a long period of time can cause cataracts and/or retinopathy in the eyes. Both can cause loss of vision.
To avoid eye problems associated with diabetes, keep your blood glucose within range and have yearly eye check-ups that include a dilated eye examination with an eye doctor to monitor your eye health.

Cardiovascular disease: affects the heart and blood vessels and may cause fatal complications such as coronary artery disease (leading to heart attack) and stroke. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with diabetes. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose and other risk factors contribute to increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications.

Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy): caused by damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys leading to the kidneys becoming less efficient or to fail altogether. Kidney disease is much more common in people with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Maintaining near normal levels of blood glucose and blood pressure can greatly reduce the risk of kidney disease.

Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy): diabetes can cause damage to the nerves throughout the body when blood glucose and blood pressure are too high. This can lead to problems with digestion, erectile dysfunction, and many other functions. Among the most commonly affected areas are the extremities, in particular the feet. Nerve damage in these areas is called peripheral neuropathy, and can lead to pain, tingling, and loss of feeling. Loss of feeling is particularly important because it can allow injuries to go unnoticed, leading to serious infections and possible amputations. People with diabetes carry a risk of amputation that may be more than 25 times greater than that of people without diabetes. However, with comprehensive management, a large proportion of amputations related to diabetes can be prevented. Even when amputation takes place, the remaining leg and the person’s life can be saved by good follow-up care from a multidisciplinary foot team. People with diabetes should regularly examine their feet.

Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy): most people with diabetes will develop some form of eye disease (retinopathy) causing reduced vision or blindness. Consistently high levels of blood glucose, together with high blood pressure and high cholesterol, are the main causes of retinopathy. It can be managed through regular eye checks and keeping glucose and lipid levels at or close to normal.

Pregnancy complications: Women with any type of diabetes during pregnancy risk a number of complications if they do not carefully monitor and manage their condition. To prevent possible organ damage to the fetus, women with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes should achieve target glucose levels before conception. All women with diabetes during pregnancy, type 1, type 2 or gestational should strive for target blood glucose levels throughout to minimize complications. High blood glucose during pregnancy can lead to the foetus putting on excess weight. This can lead to problems in delivery, trauma to the child and mother, and a sudden drop in blood glucose for the child after birth. Children who are exposed for a long time to high blood glucose in the womb are at higher risk of developing diabetes in the future.

Complications of gestational diabetes
Most women who have gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies. However, untreated or uncontrolled blood sugar levels can cause problems for you and your baby.
Complications would affect the mother and the baby and the could cause this for the baby:
Excess growth. Extra glucose can cross the placenta, which triggers your baby's pancreas to make extra insulin. This can cause your baby to grow too large (macrosomia). Very large babies are more likely to require a C-section birth.
Low blood sugar. Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes develop low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth because their own insulin production is high. Prompt feedings and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can return the baby's blood sugar level to normal.

 Death: Untreated gestational diabetes can result in a baby's death either before or shortly after birth.

As for the mother complications can include:
Preeclampsia: .This condition is characterized by high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, and swelling in the legs and feet. Preeclampsia can lead to serious or even life-threatening complications for both mother and baby.
Death: Untreated gestational diabetes can result to death during labour or after birth.