Community Health: Treatment, Diagnosis and Prevention


What Is Pneumonia?
Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. You may cough, run a fever, and have hard time breathing. For most people, pneumonia can be treated at home. It often clears up in 2 to 3 weeks. But older adults
Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lungs. It often occurs after another respiratory illness such as measles, whooping cough, flu, bronchitis etc.


Symptoms/Signs of Pneumonia
·  Headache
·  Excessive sweating and clammy skin
• Fever (sometimes newborns and old or very weak persons have severe pneumonia with little or no fever).
• Cough (often with yellow, greenish, rust colored, or slightly bloody mucus).
· Loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue
•Sharp chest pain
• Cold sores often appear on the face or lips
• Rapid, shallow breathing, with little grunts or sometimes wheezing. The nostrils may spread with each breath.
• Sudden chills and then high fever
• The person looks very ill.

Causes of Pneumonia
Bacteria: The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the U.S. is Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Bacteria-like organisms:  Mycoplasma pneumoniae also can cause pneumonia.
Viruses: Some of the viruses that cause colds and the flu can cause pneumonia. ...

How to diagnose Pneumonia
When you get to the hospital your doctor will ask you about the signs you notice and how and when they began. These would assist and help him to get what is wrong with you
He would ask question such as
People that you met in recent times (sick people)

How to Prevent Pneumonia
You can help prevent pneumonia by doing the following:
Get the flu vaccine each year. People often develop bacterial pneumonia after a case of the flu. You can reduce this risk by getting the yearly flu shot. The flu shot doesn’t protect against all strains of the flu, just the 3 to 4 strains that doctors feel will be most dangerous or widespread in the coming year.
Get the pneumococcal vaccine.
Practice good hygiene. Your hands come in contact with many germs throughout the day. You pick them up from surfaces such as doorknobs, other people’s hands and your computer keyboard. Take time to wash your hands often, especially after using the restroom and before eating. Use lukewarm water and soap for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer is the next best thing.


Don't smoke. Smoking damages your lungs and makes it harder for your body to defend itself from germs and disease. If you smoke, talk to your family doctor about quitting as soon as possible.
Practice a healthy lifestyle. Eat a balanced diet full of fruits and vegetables. Exercise regularly. Get plenty of sleep. These things help your immune system stay strong.
Avoid sick people. Being around people who are sick increases your risk of catching what they have.

Treatment for Pneumonia
As we have various type of pneumonia, so also we have different types of treatment it depends on the kind of pneumonia you are battling with.

General Treatment
Antibiotics can be used to manage or cure pneumonia, you can use benzylpenicillin, cotrimoxazole or erythromycin.
In serious cases, inject procaine penicillin adults: 1,000,000 units (1 g) a day, or give amoxicillin by mouth, 500 mg, 3 times a day. Give small children ¼ to ½ the adult dose. For children under 6, amoxicillin is usually best.
♦ Take aspirin or acetaminophen to lower the temperature and lessen the pain. acetaminophen is safer for children under 12.
♦ Give plenty of liquids. If the person will not eat, give him liquid foods or Rehydration Drink.
♦ Ease the cough and loosen the mucus by giving the person plenty of water and having him breathe hot water vapors Postural drainage may also help.
♦ If the person is wheezing, an anti-asthma medicine may help.

If you have pneumonia, follow your treatment plan, take all medicines as prescribed, and get ongoing medical care. Ask your doctor when you should schedule followup care. Your doctor may want you to have a chest x ray to make sure the pneumonia is gone.
Although you may start feeling better after a few days or weeks, fatigue (tiredness) can persist for up to a month or more. People who are treated in the hospital may need at least 3 weeks before they can go back to their normal routines.

Bacterial Pneumonia
Bacterial pneumonia is treated with medicines called antibiotics. You should take antibiotics as your doctor prescribes. You may start to feel better before you finish the medicine, but you should continue taking it as prescribed. If you stop too soon, the pneumonia may come back.
Most people begin to improve after 1 to 3 days of antibiotic treatment. This means that they should feel better and have fewer symptoms, such as cough and fever.

Viral Pneumonia
Antibiotics don't work when the cause of pneumonia is a virus. If you have viral pneumonia, your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medicine to treat it.
Viral pneumonia usually improves in 1 to 3 weeks.

Pneumonia Home Remedies/Home Cure
Carrot Juice
Fenugreek Tea
Steam Bath
Sesame Seeds
Salt Water
Vegetable Juice
Black Tea
Turpentine and Camphor Massage
Potassium Broth
500ml water
10 cloves of garlic
4 radish
4 large carrots
4 stalks of celery
Parsley as per your desired taste
1000ml water
In a pot, combine all the ingredients together and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat and simmer for a few minutes. Strain the juice. Have the broth along with your lunch.
Note- People who suffers from a heart illness should avoid potassium, as high levels of potassium in their bodies can lead to other complications.

Complications of Pneumonia/When to Call the doctor
Severe cases of pneumonia may require treatment in the hospital. Your doctor may give you oxygen to help you breathe or antibiotics through an IV.
It could also resulted to Pleural effusion.  

Pleural Effusion
Pleural Effusion occurs when an excess buildup of fluids and phlegm adhere to the lining of the chest wall, the lung’s air sacs and the spaces in between. This is a common complication that arises from pneumonia and may be one of the first visible signs on a standard chest X-Ray. If the fluid is widespread in the lungs, a Thoracentesis may have to be performed. A Thoracentesis involves inserting a needle and tube into the lungs to remove the fluids and test it further to assure proper treatment and care. After the Thoracentesis, a strong round of antibiotics may be administered.