Sleeping sickness



Sleeping sickness




Sleeping sickness

sleeping-sickness

Sleeping sickness
African Trypanosomiasis, also known as "sleeping sickness,"is a parasitic infection caused by germs carried by tsetse flies. Tsetse flies are found in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, putting 65 million people at risk. The infection attacks the central nervous system, it results in swelling of the brain. Without treatment the disease is fatal.
Causes
Sleeping sickness is caused byTrypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosomoa brucei gambiense. T. b. rhodesiense causes the more severe form of the illness. Tsetse flies carry the infection. When an infected fly bites you, the infection spreads through your blood.
Risk factors include living in parts of Africa where the disease is found and being bitten by tsetse flies. Symptoms
Initially, in the first stage of the disease, there are fevers, headaches, itchiness, and joint pains.
This begins one to three weeks after the bite.
General symptoms include: Exams and Tests
Diagnosing sleeping sickness before the second stage of the disease is difficult due to the non-specific symptoms of the early stage.  Disease management is made in 3 steps: Tests include the following: Most antibody and antigen tests are not helpful because they cannot tell the difference between current and past infections. Specific levels of antibodies called IgM in the cerebrospinal fluid may be more helpful. Treatment
The type of treatment depends on the stage of the disease.
Drugs used in the first stage of the disease are of lower toxicity and are easier to administer. However, treatment success in the second stage of the disease depends on a drug that can cross the blood-brain barrier.
Drugs used in first stage treatment: Drugs used in second stage treatment:  Some people may receive a combination of these medicines. Nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy, or NECT, is now the WHO's recommended course. sleeping-sickness

Outlook (Prognosis)
Without treatment, death can occur within 6 months from cardiac failure or from T. b. rhodesiense infection itself.
T. b. gambiense infection causes sleeping sickness disease and gets worse quickly, often over a few weeks. The disease needs to be treated immediately. Complications
Complications include: When to Contact a Medical Professional
See your health care provider right away if you have symptoms. It is important to begin treatment as soon as possible.
Prevention
Pentamidine injections protect against T. b. gambiense, but not against T. b. rhodesiense. Because this medicine is toxic, using it for prevention is not recommended.
Insect control measures can help prevent the spread of sleeping sickness in high-risk areas.








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